Hypertension Symptoms, Causes, Diagnosis and Treatment

Hypertension Causes Signs Treatment

Over a billion people around the world have hypertension or high blood pressure. That pretty much means its common.
Let’s define hypertension. Typically its represented by two numbers top is systolic blood pressure which is the arterial pressure when the heart is contracting and the lower number is the diastolic blood pressure, or when the heart is relaxing
or refilling.
Most of the time blood pressure is measured in the Brachial artery in your upper arm. Because the pressure is high there, it’s probably high throughout all of the arteries.

Let’s how these numbers work.

Hypertension Stage Systolic Blood Pressure Diastolic Blood Pressure
Normal 90-119 mmHg 60-79 mmHg
Prehypertension 120-139 mmHg 80-89 mmHg
Stage 1 140-159 mmHg 90-99 mmHg
Stage 2 >160 mmHg >100 mmHg
Hypertensive Crisis >180 mmHg >110 mmHg

Typically both Systolic and Diastolic Blood Pressures tend to fall together. However, that doesn’t necessarily happen all the time.

Sometimes you can have systolic or diastolic hypertension. When one number is normal and the other is really high. This is referred to as isolated Isolated Systolic or Diastolic Hypertension.

High blood pressure is a serious problem for the blood vessels. It causes wear and tears on the endothelial cells that lie in the inside of the blood vessels. You can actually compare this to a hose that is always at a high pressure. It can always develop tiny cracks and tears which can create serious health problems. For instance, myocardial infarction, strokes, and aneurysms.

About 90 % of the time hypertension happens with absolutely no reason. Or no known reason. We call this essential or primary hypertension.

Or to put it this way. Over time, the blood pressure in the arteries tends to anonymously creep up.

Blood pressure in the arteriesPrimary Hypertension

  • Old age
  • Salt-Heavy Diets
  • Obesity
  • Inactive Lifestyles
  • No Physical Activity

Except for old age, you can actually improve all of the above. You get a chance to win hypertension. Improve your lifestyle, adopt a more healthy diet. Start exercising. These will help you reduce high blood pressure, hypertension.

Primary hypertension like we mentioned happens in about 90% of the cases. How about the other 10%?

See Also: How To Reduce High Blood Pressure With These Natural Remedies

Secondary Hypertension

For the rest of the cases, there is an actual reason or an underlying cause for hypertension. This is called secondary hypertension.

Anything that limits the blood flow to the kidneys or renal blood flow can cause hypertension. This complication can also cause:

  • Atherosclerosis
  • Aortic Dissection
  • Vasculitis

This happens because the kidneys play a super important role in blood pressure regulation. When not enough blood flows to the kidney, which secrets the hormone renin. Renin ultimately helps the kidneys retain more water. This retained water contributes to more blood in the arteries, therefore increasing the fluid volume which eventually leads to hypertension.

There are others disease that can cause secondary hypertension. For instance, Fibromuscular Dysplasia. This disease affects young women. It induces the walls of the arteries to harden.

Another thing that can cause secondary hypertension is the tumor that produces excess aldosterone. And just like renin, this leads to increased fluid volume and it leads to hypertension.

Hypertensive Crisis

This is diagnosed when the Systolic Blood Pressure is more than 180 mmHg or if Diastolic Pressure is more than 110 mmHg.

  • Hypertensive Urgency

Hypertensive Crisis can be further spread into hypertensive urgency and hypertensive emergency. In this stage, hypertension has not yet caused any damage to the end organs, for instance, the brain, the heart, the kidneys, and lungs

  • Hypertensive Emergency

In this stage, however, there has been shown some evidence of damage to end organs.

Hypertension Symptoms

  • Primary Hypertension

This stage usually does not show any symptoms. Which is why it is sometimes referred to as the “silent killer”.

  • Secondary Hypertension

This stage might involve a variety of symptoms which associate with the underlying cause.

  • Hypertensive Emergency

Confusion, Drowsiness, Breathlessness, and Chest pain might be some of the symptoms that this stage produces.

Hypertension Treatment

A common treatment for hypertension is changing your lifestyles. For instance:

  • Implementing Healthier Diet
  • Exercising
  • Reducing Stress

In addition, there are some anti-hypertensive medications that can be prescribed as well.


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